We explain what is the argumentative text and what are its main characteristics. Elements, its structure, and its parts.

Argumentative text

The argumentative text is a type of text that has coherence and, in turn, argues or raises different reasons or depending on something that the text tries to explain or say.

In the beginning the argumentative text was manifested orally, however at present there are both argumentative texts or oratory with the same purpose: to persuade or convince the reader or listener about something in particular using valid arguments or arguments, be they logical or affective .

An argumentative text has elements that affirm or deny certain ideas but this is done starting from different refutations, objections, questions both own and alien.

An argumentative text presents a particular structure. Unlike other types of texts, the argumentative implies that this structure is very specific. On the other hand, these texts show certain characteristics of the same issuer, a situation that does not occur in other types of texts.

Characteristics of the argumentative text


Before starting to write an argumentative text it is necessary to take into account the planning of it. That is, what ideas will be taken and what will be transmitted. In the planning will try to develop mentally or in a sketch (draft) the thesis that will accompany throughout the text.


An argumentative text will have five paragraphs that will be of a similar extension with respect to each other.

Paragraph No. 1: In this first paragraph the introduction must be made and the thesis formulated.

Paragraphs 2 and 3: E the paragraph of the arguments. These are presented as approving or supporting the thesis (s). It is always recommended that there are between one and two main theses, although this will depend on the intension of the issuer.

Paragraph No. 4: This paragraph is presented to refute or counterargument the previous paragraph.

Paragraph No. 5: It is the paragraph of the conclusion.

Parts of the text

The internal parts of the argumentative texts are strict regarding the presentation of their parts. Thus, three parts can be distinguished. These are:

Introduction. This introduction is also known as the presentation of the hypotheses that will be developed in the next step. Here you can find paragraph # 1 explained above.

Developing. In this stage, arguments that can validate or refute one or more hypotheses are shown sequentially. Sometimes, the development can be subdivided into two parts: Thesis and Argumentation.

Conclusion. It is the part where the issuer will explain all the conclusions presented above. Here is paragraph 5.

Facts and hypotheses

All argumentative text is based on a thesis or proposition, although there may be more than one thesis. This is, an idea based on something that the issuer will try to demonstrate, refute or question with different arguments throughout the argumentative text.

Issuer’s posture

In the argumentative texts it is possible not only to see the position of the sender of the text but also to know their opinions since, in these texts, the sender will try to convince or persuade the interlocutors on a particular subject. Thus, the issuer’s task will be to convince the interlocutors about one or several ideas.

However, the issuer has the purpose of raising several points of view, only that it will opt for one of them and will defend it or, failing that, refute another point and based on that text.

Demonstration and argumentative sequence

Given that the argumentative texts must state a hypothesis, the demonstration of the facts will be made through the different argumentative elements.

In order to demonstrate the thesis, the issuer can appeal to the exemplification, clarification, explanation, consensus or denial.

Types of arguments

There are two main types of arguments that can be found in argumentative texts. On the one hand there are the emotive-affective arguments and on the other there are the arguments for reasoning.

Emotional-affective arguments: They are those that allude to conviction through feelings, goodness or lack of it. They use guilt or love to persuade. Mostly they are demonstrated with examples.

Arguments for reasoning. They appeal to the receptors’ reasoning ability. This type of reasoning can be by analogy, by generalization, by symptomatic signs or by cause.

Types of argumentative texts

Texts that use this type of structure to communicate something are mostly scientific, psychological, theological, philosophical, and linguistic texts. In addition, legal texts such as amparo appeals or appeals are argumentative texts.

Formal aspects

In this type of texts:

An impersonal voice with a formal language is used.

Not too many commas are used, rather the use of separate points and followed, depending on the case.

Words are not repeated, rather synonyms are used.

You use connectors to give cohesion to the text.

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